Spiritual Perfection Requires Transcendence of the Three Gunas

The highest degree of refinement of which the human individual is capable within the framework of the normal life in the world is a life in which Sattwa and its qualities are predominant. This however does not constitute spiritual perfection, which implies a shift of the consciousness and standpoint of awareness from the mental to the spiritual plane of existence. Sri Aurobindo notes: “But richness of life, even a sattwic harmony of mind and nature does not constitute spiritual perfection. There is a relative possible perfection, but it is a perfection of incompleteness, some partial height, force, beauty, some measure of nobility and greatness, some imposed and precariously sustained balance. There is a relative mastery, but it is a mastery of the body by life or of the life by mind, not a free possession of the instruments by the liberated and self-possessing spirit.”

As long as the individual remains within the realm of nature and the action of the Gunas, the most refined harmonious action predominating in Sattwa is subject to dilution by the intrusion of Rajas and Tamas, as well as to constant change and loss of that balance through the interplay of the Gunas in the life in the world. Each of the Gunas, even Sattwa, have their limitations and make up the action of the ego-sense. There is a tamasic ego, a rajasic ego and also a sattwic ego. All of these forms prevent the liberation from occurring and the action of the divine force remains weak and limited by the obstacles provided by the ego-personality.

“The gunas have to be transcended if we would arrive at spiritual perfection. Tamas evidently has to be overcome, inertia and ignorance and incapacity cannot be elements of a true perfection; but it can only be overcome in Nature by the force of Rajas aided by an increasing force of Sattwa. Rajas has to be overcome, egoism, personal desire and self-seeking passion are not elements of the true perfection; but it can only be overcome by force of Sattwa enlightening the being and force of Tamas limiting the action. Sattwa itself does not give the highest or the integral perfection; Sattwa is always a quality of the limited nature; sattwic knowledge is the light of a limited mentality; sattwic will is the government of a limited intelligent force. Moreover, Sattwa cannot act by itself in Nature, but has to rely for all action on the aid of Rajas, so that even sattwic action is always liable to the imperfections of Rajas; egoism, perplexity, inconsistency, a one-sided turn, a limited and exaggerated will, exaggerating itself in the intensity of its limitations, pursue the mind and action even of the saint, philosopher and sage. There is a sattwic as well as a rajasic or tamasic egoism, at the highest an egoism of knowledge or virtue; but the mind’s egoism of whatever type is incompatible with liberation. All the three gunas have to be transcended. Sattway may bring us near to the Light, but is limited clarity falls away from us when we enter into the luminous body of the divine Nature.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 9, The Liberation of the Nature, pg. 660

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