If we reflect on the judgment-process in the mind, we see that it gathers facts, consults memory, organizes and then uses various logical tools such as deduction or inference to achieve what it believes to be the truth of anything to which it has turned its attention. This process has a number of potential obstacles implicit within it, either through inaccurate or incomplete recording of facts and details, faulty memory, inadequate or incomplete organization, and faulty use of logic, as well as potential mental or emotional bias which predisposes the mind towards a certain result. Thus the mind’s method of judgment is always subject to scrutiny and must be acknowledged for its limited capability and at best mixed results. This is all a result of the fragmented, divided and limited nature of the mental consciousness and its tie to the ego-personality and the limitations of the background, training and predispositions of the individual within his social framework.
The supermind, on the other hand, finds its basis in a level of consciousness that incorporates the knowledge and oneness of the divine being, recognises the inherent links between all forms, forces and beings in the manifestation of the divine, and therefore, sees and knows from the standpoint of knowledge, not ignorance, with a holistic inclusiveness of past, present and future. Thus, an entirely different process and result can be expected.
Sri Aurobindo observes: “The supramental judgment acts inseparably from the supramental observation or memory, inherent in it as a direct seeing or cognition of values, significances, antecedents, consequences, relations, etc.; or it supervenes on the observation as a luminous disclosing idea or suggestion; or it may go before, independent of any observation, and then the object called up and observed confirms visibly the truth of the idea. But in each case it is sufficient in itself for its own purpose, is its own evidence and does not really depend for its truth on any aid or confirmation. There is a logic of the supramental reason, but its function is not to test or scrutinise, to support and prove or to detect and eliminate error. Its function is simply to link knowledge with knowledge, to discover and utilise harmonies and arrangement and relations, to organise the movement of the supramental knowledge. This it does not by any formal rule or construction of inferences but by a direct, living and immediate seeing and placing of connection and relation. All thought in the supermind is in the natur eof intuition, inspiration or revelation and all deficiency of knowledge is to be supplied by a farther action of these powers; error is prevented by the action of a spontaneous and luminous discrimination; the movement is always from knowledge to knowledge. It is not rational in our sense but suprarational,–it does sovereignly what is sought to be done stumblingly and imperfectly by the mental reason.”
Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 23, The Supramental Instruments — Thought-process , pp. 829-830