Sri Aurobindo identifies two major directions that could bring about the unity of humanity on a political, economic and administrative basis. One of these would be the formation of a centralized world government, with all that is entailed thereby. The other would be a system of free and independent nations interacting on a basis of equality through some kind of interactive process such as a functioning body of an upgraded and effective United Nations.
Sri Aurobindo first explores the implications of a centralized world government: “If the former more rigorous idea or tendency or need dominated, we must have a period of compression, constriction, negation of national and individual liberties as in the second of the three historical stages of national formation in Europe. This process would end, if entirely successful, in a centralised world-government which would impose its uniform rule and law, uniform administration, uniform economic and educational system, one culture, one social principle, one civilisation, perhaps even one language and one religion on all mankind. Centralised, it would delegate some of its powers to national authorities and councils, but only as the centralized French government — Parliament and bureaucracy — delegate some of their powers to the departmental prefects and councils and their subordinate officials and communes.”
A modified form of this centralized structure could result in multiple world-empires, each controlling a large segment of humanity, and interacting with each other on a peer to peer basis. Such a model, albeit with a dystopian twist, was suggested by George Orwell in his famous work 1984. In that work, the world was divided into three massive empires, Oceania, Eurasia and East Asia. These three were constantly striving to gain supremacy over one another, while switching alliances from time to time. The resulting war footing and planned resource shortages allowed each empire to gain total domination over its citizenry. The internal models followed by each one may have varied, but the result is quite akin to the single world-government model described by Sri Aurobindo.
Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity, Part Two, Chapter 19, The Drive towards Centralisation and Uniformity — Administration and Control of Foreign Affairs, pg. 167