The Experience and Difficulty of Drawing Inwards in the Consciousness

Until an individual has an actual experience of what the Mother calls ‘interiorisation’, there is no real way to understand what it is about. Many people believe that if they sit quietly in meditation, or follow an internal train of thought, that they have an inner experience, but this is not what the Mother actually refers to. These things are still functions of the surface being, the external personality, and can be likened to the earth’s thin layer of topsoil. Most of the substance of the earth lies well below the few inches or feet of topsoil, and the deeper layers determine the nature of the earth’s rotation, axis, speed and shape, thus governing, together with the sun and the moon, the earth’s tides, climate, and lands.

When an individual has a true experience of ‘interiorisation’ there is a depth and power that can remove all awareness of the outer personality and being. Most individuals experience an existential fear of dissolution and death when they first taste such a state of awareness, as they feel the dissolving of the ego-shell that holds their personality together. If they react to this, they are quickly drawn back away from this interior state to the outer external being and they are left with the sense and feeling of something deeper, but lose the immediate opportunity to experience something other than their bodily life. Eventually, if the experience returns, they can reach deep states of immersion and can learn about the larger existence of which they are a part. Some experiences of this type are called “samadhi” or “turiya” at various times, describing different levels and types of inward experience.

Many people who have interacted with the Mother and Sri Aurobindo have reported having such an experience, sometimes repeatedly, as they absorb the psychic atmosphere by which they are surrounded.

The Mother was asked “But one can become conscious, Sweet Mother, can’t one?”

She replied: “Fully! But for this one must work a little within oneself. One must withdraw from the surface. … Almost totally, everybody lives on the surface, all the time, all the time on the surface. And for them it’s even the only thing which exists — the surface. And when something compels them to draw back from the surface, some people feel that they are falling into a hole. There are people who, if they are drawn back from the surface suddenly feel that they are crumbling down into an abyss, so unconscious are they! … They are conscious only of a kind of small thin crust which is all that they know of themselves and things and the world, and it is so thin a crust! Many! I have experienced, I don’t know how often… I tried to interiorise some people and immediately they felt that they were falling into an abyss, and at times a black abyss. Now this is the absolute inconscience. But a fall, a fall into something which for them is like a non-existence, this happens very often. People are told: ‘Sit down and try to be silent, to be very quiet’; this frightens them terribly. … A fairly long preparation is needed in order to feel an increase of life when one goes out of the outer consciousness. It is already a great progress. And then there is the culmination, that when one is obliged for some reason or other to return to the outer consciousness, it is there that one has the impression of falling into a black hole, at least into a kind of dull, lifeless greyness, a chaotic mixture of disorganised things, with the faintest light, and all this seems so dull, so dim, so dead that one wonders how it is possible to remain in this state — but this of course is the other end — unreal, false, confused, lifeless!”

Sri Aurobindo and The Mother, Living Within: The Yoga Approach to Psychological Health and Growth, General Methods and Principles, Becoming More Conscious, pp. 2-5

Three Parts of the Outer Being: Mental, Vital and Physical

Once an individual recognises that there are three separate foundations of consciousness in the outer being, and that they are not simply part of one unified awareness, it becomes much easier to untangle the numerous strands of pressure internally and understand how to address and deal with the inner issues, conflicts, obstructions and difficulties. How many people struggle with issues such as kicking an addiction, or losing weight, only to blame themselves for a lack of will-power, when in fact it is not the will-power of the mind that is the issue, but some other physical or vital cause. This perspective opens up avenues for resolving long-standing issues. For instance, when one recognises that cravings of hunger may be caused by purely physical issues including pharmaceutical drugs one is taking for various health conditions, or nutritional deficiencies or malfunction of organs (or many other physical causes), the emotional distress and mental suffering that accompanies the belief that it is one’s own lack of will that causes the issue can be relieved, and thus, another accentuating cause of ’emotional eating’ can be released.

Similarly, one can see that many vital disruptions are actually caused by the influence of energetic forces directly impinging on the vital nature. In many cases, the individual later admits that he did “not know what came over him, it was not like him to do the thing he did.” The force of the vital can overwhelm the best intentions in the mind under certain circumstances.

One can also observe that the mind gets a fixed idea and is so focused on carrying it out, that it loses perspective, in some cases actually torturing the vital being or the physical body in a mistaken idea that its idea must be carried out regardless of the readiness of the rest of the being.

The understanding of the various parts of the being provides needed leverage for accomplishing actual change through skillful means, as one gains an understanding of the differing ways these parts learn, respond and grow, and thus, one can tailor the focus on change to meet the actual circumstances one is faced with internally.

Dr. Dalal writes: “The three parts of the being referred to above — mental, vital, physical — constitute the outer being, each part having its own distinct nature and characteristics. Below is a brief description of each of these three parts in Sri Aurobindo’s words:

“… in the language of this yoga the words ‘mind’ and ‘mental’ are used to connote specially the part of the nature which has to do with cognition and intelligence, with ideas, with mental or thought perceptions, the reactions of thought to things, with the truly mental movements and formations, mental vision and will, etc., that are part of the intelligence. The vital has to be carefully distinguished from mind, even though it has a mind element transfused into it; the vital is the Life-nature made up of desires, sensations, feelings, passions, energies of actions, will of desire, reactions of the desire-soul in man and of all that play of possessive and other related instincts, anger, fear, greed, lust, etc., that belong to this field of the nature. Mind and vital are mixed up on the surface of the consciousness, but they are quite separate forces in themselves and as soon as one gets behind the ordinary surface consciousness one sees them as separate, discovers their distinction and can with the aid of this knowledge analyse their surface mixtures.”

“The body… has its own consciousness and acts from it, even without any mental will of our own or even against that will, and our surface mind knows very little about this body-consciousness, feels it only in an imperfect way, sees only its results and has the greatest difficulty in finding out their causes.”

Sri Aurobindo and The Mother, Living Within: The Yoga Approach to Psychological Health and Growth, Introduction, Parts of the Being, pp. x – xiii

What Is Meant By the Concept of Mental Health?

For the most part, Western psychology is focused on treating what is considered ‘abnormal’ in order to help an individual fit into society and act ‘normally’. Much focus is put on external causes of various forms of disturbance and how the individual can adjust, adapt or respond to those disturbances. The approach leads to a constant need for ‘therapy sessions’ as there are countless causes of disturbance, looked at from an external standpoint, all the time in everyone’s life. If an individual can be made basically content with the coping mechanisms and can be supported to ‘fit in’ to the life of society, the therapy is considered to be successful.

Missing from this approach, however, is any attempt to understand the deeper drives and issues that create these fluctuations, the methods of solving the underlying concerns, and motivations, that drive people into negative reactions in the first place. Few ask the question about the status of “normality” in a world that, to many, has gone absolutely mad.

What if the entire approach is missing the significance of human life and the aspiration that drives humanity forward? What if the process of trying to help people ‘fit in’ to a world of misplaced focus and values is actually creating more internal stress? When individuals self-medicate with various drugs or alcohol, they are trying to cope with the mismatch between their inner sense and the demands of the society outside. Is it possible that a re-evaluation of the objectives, goals and forms of the society is what is really required here? When we look around at human-caused mass suffering, war, mass migration, mass extinctions due to climate change, income inequality that is caused by fictitious modes of action in our economic models and the vast dislocations in our society evidenced by homelessness, drug dependency, alcoholism, bullying,, racism, misogyny, violence, and poverty, etc. it becomes quite clear that much of the mental health of individuals must relate to the context they find themselves in within the society. Self-worth is evaluated, not on intrinsic values of one’s life and aspirations, but on external factors such as wealth, status, social position, physical appearance, etc. As long as they try to frame their lives and response within the context of the society, they clearly have no way out and succumb to mental disturbances.

What if there is a way out of the prison of the mind within which everyone seems to operate? This is the proposition put forward by practitioners of yoga who set forth a goal aligned with the deepest aspirations of humanity, for meaning in their lives, for exercising the drive for growth and fulfillment, for attaining to peace and building a social order that is based on peace, harmony and good will.

Dr. Dalal writes: “Our psychological state is normally characterized by continual disturbances of varying degrees of severity. some of the common disturbances are fear, anxiety, depression, insecurity, restlessness, anger, jealousy, suspicion, etc. Up to a certain degree, such disturbances are considered ‘normal’. When the disturbances experienced by an individual exceed what is regarded as normal, the person is said to be suffering from a lack of ‘mental health’. When disturbances reach extreme proportions and significantly disable an individual, the person is deemed to be suffering from mental illness. Thus mental health is generally understood as absence of marked psychological disturbances.”

“An increasing number of people, however, find such a view of mental health unsatisfactory for two reasons. First, it is felt that mental health should consist in certain positive characteristics which impart a positive sense of psychological well-being, such as peace, inner security, confidence, a sense of mastery, etc.; the mere absence of significant disturbances does not constitute mental health. Secondly, people are beginning to realize that it is not only the more acute disturbances such as anxiety, depression, agitation, etc. that impair mental health; even such things as the constant chatter and distractibility of the mind, the perpetual hankering for different objects of desire, the recurrent pull of inertia, etc. — which few look upon as psychological disturbances — are felt by more and more people as states that mar inner well-being and therefore denote a lack of mental health.”

“To such people, yoga may have something valuable to offer. For yoga is a psychological approach which aims at a radical change of consciousness so as to lead to a state of immutable and unconditioned peace, freedom and joy. The perfect yogic state has been described as not only free from all disturbances, but also immune to them by virtue of its positive characteristics.”

Sri Aurobindo and The Mother, Living Within: The Yoga Approach to Psychological Health and Growth, Introduction

Reading, Mental Development and Spiritual Growth

There is a general bias in our society that holds that someone who has a developed mentality, and who is ‘well-read’ is smarter or more intelligent than those who cannot read or who have limited reading capacity. Yet it must be recognised that intelligence cannot be measured, as is done in the West, on tests that validate reading skills and memorization of ‘facts’. Intelligence is actually a measure of how well an individual actually understands what the ‘facts’ mean and has the ability to go behind the surface meanings to get at the real root significance. This is not restricted to reading, but relates to all of life and experience. Thus, intellectual development does not always correlate with true understanding. This is also known as the difference between ‘knowledge’ and ‘wisdom’.

Reading, particularly if it is done with a quiet and receptive frame of mind, or with a devotional openness of the heart, can help to put the being in the right ‘mood’ to open to spiritual forces and the higher ranges of mentality. This implies a different methodology for reading than is normally done in Western education. In the West, reading is used to acquire and hold onto factual knowledge, or to awaken the imagination to vital experiences, and in both cases, this ties the intellect down and creates a frame that is generally closed off from higher insights. Reading done slowly and deliberately, with an aspiration for understanding, may actually aid in the process of spiritual growth, and this is particularly the case if the reading is of devotional or spiritual literature that moves the mind and the heart into a receptive mode.

Another purpose of reading may be to acquire facts of the external world, and, if used to open up the sense of wonder and deeper insight into the nature of the creation, it can also aid in the spiritual seeking.

Certain types of reading can actually become a meditative process. Many who read Sri Aurobindo’s epic poem Savitri: a Legend and a Symbol, report experiences while reading certain passages, as the poem has a mantric force that, in a receptive state of mind, can bring with it the experience represented in that passage.

Sri Aurobindo notes: “Reading and study are only useful to acquire information and widen one’s field of data. But that comes to nothing if one does not know how to discern and discriminate, judge, see what is within and behind things.”

“Intelligence does not depend on the amount one has read, it is a quality of the mind. Study only gives it material for its work as life also does. There are people who do not know how to read and write who are more intelligent than many highly educated people and understand life and things better. On the other hand, a good intelligence can improve itself by reading because it gets more material to work on and grows by exercise and by having a wider range to move in. But book-knowledge by itself is not the real thing, it has to be used as a help to the intelligence but it is often only a help to stupidity or ignorance — ignorance because knowledge of facts is a poor thing if one cannot see their true significance.”

Sri Aurobindo, Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice, Chapter 12, Other Aspects of Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice, Mental Development, Reading and Study, pp. 361-365

How to Recognise the Manifestation of the Divine Presence in the Human Individual

How do we recognise the Divine manifesting through an individual human being? Arjuna poses a similar question in the Bhagavad Gita, when he asks how to recognise the enlightened man. How does he walk, how does he dress, what does he eat, how does he act? Sri Krishna reminds Arjuna that the realised soul cannot be recognised by outer forms, but only by the inner spiritual consciousness at work in the individual. The needs of the outer world change and the individual must act according to those needs. The Divine does not operate, normally, outside the framework of the operation of Nature, which indeed is the form that the Divine manifestation has set up to build the creation.

We expect God to do something that defies or alters the laws of nature. We expect God to part the waters of the sea, to turn water into wine, to walk on water, to fly through the air, to have extraordinary powers of wisdom and action. We only accept divinity, generally, when it is packaged within a cloak of supernatural events. We expect some kind of miracles to show the Divine Presence at work; otherwise we do not accept the divine source. The miracle surrounds us every day, all the time, in every aspect of our existence in this created universe!

There are transitions to be accomplished to move the evolutionary process forward, and it is during these transitions that certain individuals appear to provide guidance, work out the details and disseminate them for general progress. In some cases, they may be fully conscious of the divine source and power that is moving them, and thus, become what in India is known as an ‘avatar’. In others, they carry some genius, or power of action, some special skill set, without necessarily recognising the source and process, and in those instances they are known as a ‘vibhuti’, or emanation of the Divine. There may be what men call ‘miracles’ at any point in these transitional stages, as they are, by definition, bringing forward evolutionary powers that were not fully activated previously, and this, for most human beings, will seem to be miraculous.

Sri Aurobindo writes: “Men’s way of doing things well is through a clear mental connection; they see things and do things with the mind and what they want is a mental and human perfection. When they think of a manifestation of Divinity, they think it must be an extraordinary perfection in doing ordinary human things — an extraordinary business faculty, political, poetic or artistic faculty, an accurate memory, not making mistakes, not undergoing any defeat or failure. Or else they think of things which they call superhuman like not eating food or telling cotton-futures or sleeping on nails or eating them. All that has nothing to do with manifesting the Divine. … These human ideas are false.”

“The Divinity acts according to another consciousness, the consciousness of the Truth above and the Lila below and It acts according to the need of the Lila, not according to man’s ideas of what It should or should not do. This is the first thing one must grasp, otherwise one can understand nothing about the manifestation of the Divine.”

Sri Aurobindo, Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice, Chapter 12, Other Aspects of Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice, The Avatar and the Vibhuti, pp. 347-349

Solving the Existential Crisis of Humanity Through the Evolution of Consciousness, Part II Practical Applications; the Example of Auroville

In part I of this series we explored the nature of the existential crisis of humanity, the 6th planetary “die off” of species, the extinction event that is knocking at our door, and the underlying causal actions of humanity that have created this crisis, based on the methodology and the consequent limitations of the mental consciousness acting on the vital and physical planes.  We also explored the evolutionary cycle and the signs of the next phase of evolution beyond the mind, which Sri Aurobindo terms the “supramental consciousness” that is in process of manifesting.  The mental consciousness is based in the ego and sees things as if it is at the center of existence, a falsehood that leads to all kinds of imbalances in humanity’s interactions with the world.  The supramental consciousness as it manifests is not bound by the ego-personality and sees things in a holistic and complete way. 

As we begin the shift from the mental to the supramental consciousness, we can already begin to work on adapting this changed viewpoint into the ways we deal with and address the world around us, and the way we interact with other individuals.  This can, and should, bring about enormous changes in the way humanity relates to the environment, and we are beginning to see a change in understanding consistent with this shift from the ego-awareness to the consciousness beyond the ego and its mental-vital-physical framework.

The existential crisis we are looking at needs urgent and effective action to change human patterns of life and this requires considerable effort to both develop new, sound ways of dealing with the world, and finding ways to create implementations of these new patterns. 

The Auroville project in South India acts as an incubator for new approaches toward living holistically on the planet, and developing sound, scalable and adaptable models that can start with the developing world, where the need is obviously the greatest and the resources available are the least.  The developed world, with its embedded base of investments will only follow along when it becomes obvious to those who hold and command the resources that their model is unsustainable and must be changed.  The situation in the developing world, however, is much different and there, the people are going to adopt the model of the developed world, and further burden the planet, if they do not find ways to survive and thrive that are also more balanced for the future.  Their rationale is that they have the same right to succeed and enjoy their lives as those who have exploited the planet in the past, and thus, they should not be gainsaid with regard to their development aspirations.

Auroville has residents from more than 70 countries around the world, people who have come to work towards developing new ways and new directions and new relationships to provide a way forward out of the existential crisis we are facing.  They bring with them the aspirations of humanity, as well as all the basic characteristics of humanity that need to be addressed while trying to overcome the issues and concerns that tend to divide humanity one from another.  In addition to simply being an experiment in how to bring about human unity across different cultural mindsets, languages, religious and political backgrounds, Auroville has numerous projects spanning a wide variety of fields, but each focused on a different aspect of sustainability, environmental integrity and healing of the planet and the people.  It has not only conceptualized numerous potential directions, but has actually started up a number of projects to actualize these concepts and show that they can be both effective, harmonious, adaptable and scalable.

One such project was a reforestation program.  Auroville, when it was founded in 1968, was a desolated landscape with heavy erosion, lack of tree cover and vegetation and harsh heat under a beating sun.  Today one sees a lush forest with a complex infrastructure of native plants, insects and animals in a heavily forested area, with erosion control, and water catchments, all in harmony with Nature.  The transformation was made through the kind of holistic vision that needs to be applied more widely in the world. 

The reforestation project worked on many levels.  First, to understand the native flora and fauna of the region and begin to introduce appropriate vegetation and trees.  Second, to work with the local villagers so they would both understand the value and support the project as it developed.  Third, to nurture the plantings carefully through the initial stages.  Along the way, water runoff was studied and catchments and diversions were developed to capture the water and not allow it to further erode the landscape.

Not only did Auroville achieve “proof of concept” with this project, but it succeeded in exporting the basics of this project to Haiti, Kenya and some other areas in India, successfully, by developing local individuals who took into account their own local circumstances and adapted the consciousness that was developed to the new situation.

Other projects include creating high protein algae-based foods, commercial hemp for a number of uses, including environmentally-friendly bricks for building.  They also have developed architectural models to maintain a moderate and cool environment within the tropical zone through the building design and materials used, rather than the Western approach of relying on energy-intensive air conditioning equipment, as well as creating unique solutions to water capture and conservation. 

Auroville has more than 55 current projects spanning the gamut from food, water and health to building, construction and reforestation, while also experimenting with new ways of developing and sharing resources within the community.  Many of these projects are mature and ready to be scaled to other localities in the developing world, while some are working out the implementation details in the initial stages.  Auroville does not claim to have all the solutions, but it is working to envision and implement new ways that are in harmony with the global, holistic requirements to solve the existential crisis we face. 

Another aspect of the Auroville project is the very dynamics of interaction between all the different people, backgrounds, religions, languages and cultures.  Everyone brings their own unique perspective and ways of acting to the situation and, as we see everywhere in the world, this can bring about a considerable amount of disagreement, or even conflict.  The challenge at Auroville is to become a laboratory for change, not just on the environmental or natural circumstances, but also to face and find solutions to the interpersonal challenges that inevitably must arise given the complexity of the society that is being built there.  This encompasses also new ways of allocating resources, new forms of decision-making, and a wider vision that can encompass numerous different approaches without taking personal affront, as so often is the case wherever people join together to accomplish something, whether in a family, a business, a community, a society, a religious tradition, or a civilization.  None of these challenges are simple of solution, and in order to even be resolved, they must arise and be confronted, understood and worked out.  The Auroville project brings to this process a basic understanding and good will regarding the need for such interaction and new forms of resolution, and thus, even disagreement or internal conflict becomes part of the larger process as the community continues to grow, develop and flourish over time.

For an extensive interview covering this subject and the Auroville experiment see the following link: https://youtu.be/eoiV_ipoHbk

A preceding interview going in depth into the existential crisis and the evolution of consciousness see the following link: https://youtu.be/n3MznXmXDM4

For more information about the Auroville projects and overview of the comprehensive nature of these projects as experiments in developing a sustainable future, you can visit the website at https://aviusa.org/flourish/  and for more general information about Auroville, visit  www.aviusa.org/auroville   

For more information about the writings of Sri Aurobindo which underlie the approaches taken as humanity searches for a way to survive and thrive in the future, you can visit www.lotuspress.com as well as visit the daily blog postings at   https://sriaurobindostudies.wordpress.com and daily podcast at  https://anchor.fm/santosh-krinsky    and the web page www.aurobindo.net 

Causes and Solutions for Physical Fatigue

In the field of medicine, there is a practice known as ‘differential diagnosis’ which examines symptoms and looks at the variety of potential causes before suggesting a remedy or curative action. The classic example is one of headache, which can have innumerable potential causes, including tension or stress, indigestion, a variety of disease conditions, physical trauma, concussion, eye strain, etc. Depending on the underlying cause, a solution is then proposed and implemented.

Similarly, when physical fatigue overtakes the body, there can be a variety of different causes, and each one would have a different potential solution. We tend to overlook the causes by fixating on the symptoms alone. Yet there cannot be any true resolution without addresing the underlying cause.

Sri Aurobindo takes up the question of physical fatigue and outlines three major causes and the solution of each.

Sri Aurobindo notes: “Physical fatigue like this in the course of the sadhana may come from various reasons: 1. It may come from receiving more than the physical is ready to assimilate. The cure is then quiet rest in conscious immobility receiving the forces but not for any other purpose than the recuperation of the strength and energy. 2. It may be due to the passivity taking the form of inertia — inertia brings the consciousness down towards the ordinary physical level which is soon fatigued and prone to tamas. The cure here is to get back into the true consciousness and to rest there, not in inertia. 3. It may be due to mere overstrain of the body — not giving it enough sleep or repose. The body is the support of the yoga, but its energy is not inexhaustible and needs to be husbanded; it can be kept up by drawing on the universal vital Force but that reinforcement too has its limits. A certain moderation is needed even in the eagerness for progress — moderation, not indifference or indolence.”

Sri Aurobindo, Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice, Chapter 10, Difficulties in Transforming the Nature, Weakness, Fatigue, Inertia, pp 309-311

Rig Veda Samhita, Hymns to the Divine Dawn

It is difficult to systematically study and appreciate the Rig Veda other than through audio programs, inasmuch as considerable force of the revelation comes through in the poetic force and recitation of these verses, and thus, we have created a series of audio files which include the recitation of the Sanskrit text of the Rig Vedic hymns chosen, and the English translation provided by Sri Aurobindo. All recordings were created in 1973 at Sri Aurobindo Ashram. Commentary and Translation by Sri Aurobindo. Recitation in Sanskrit by Sri Vinayak. English recitation by Santosh Krinsky. Click on the enclosed links to go directly to each of the audio files included here. Page references to the U.S. edition of The Secret of the Veda by Sri Aurobindo, published by Lotus Press are provided for further elucidation and reading on the subject of each hymn.

Sri Aurobindo writes: “My object has been to show in as brief a compass as possible the real functions of the Vedic gods, the sense of the symbols in which their cult is expressed, the nature of the sacrifice and its goal, explaining by actual examples the secret of the Veda. I have purposely selected a few brief and easy hymns, and avoided those which have a more striking depth, subtlety and complexity of thought and image, — alike those which bear the psychological sense plainly and fully on their surface and those which by their very strangeness and profundity reveal their true character of mystic and sacred poems. It is hoped that these examples will be sufficient to show the reader who cares to study them with an open mind the real sense of this, our earliest and greatest poetry. By other translations of a more general character it will be shown that these ideas are not merely the highest thought of a few Rishis, but the pervading sense and teaching of the Rig-veda.”

Hymns to the Dawn:

Sri Aurobindo devotes considerable space in The Secret of the Veda to the Divine Dawn. Chapter 13 (pp. 126-131) is focused on the Dawn. In the section titled Selected Hymns, one of the Hymns has been chosen and commented on (pp. 281-286). In a later section titled Guardians of the Light, there is a Hymn to the Divine Dawn (pp. 429-432). Finally, in a section titled Other Hymns, there are Hymns to the Dawn (pp. 524-528)

Rig Veda Samhita, Mandala V, Sukta 79, Hymn to the Dawn (Secret of the Veda, pp. 524-526

Rig Veda Samhita, Mandala III, Sukta 61 Hymn to the Divine Dawn To illustrate the method of interpretation, Sri Aurobindo chose 13 hymns and provided translation and commentary under the heading ‘Selected Hymns’.  This is the sixth of these selected hymns, the Hymn to The Divine Dawn.  (The Secret of the Veda, US edition, pp. 281-286) The English translation was provided by Sri Aurobindo

Rig Veda Samhita, Mandala I, Sukta 113 Hymn to the Dawn In Part I, Chapter 13 of The Secret of the Veda, Sri Aurobindo provides an extensive commentary on the significance of the Divine Dawn. Mandala I, Sukta 113 is referenced therein a number of times. The translation of this Hymn was provided by Nolini Kanta Gupta.

Sri Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda, U.S. edition published by Lotus Press

Ordering of Posts from Yesterday and Today

i was working on both posts and inadvertently posted today’s post yesterday and yesterday’s post today.  So you will see the final post for the Aitareya Upanishad showing up sequentially after the first post for the Prashna Upanishad in the sequential listings.  Sorry for any possible confusion that was involved.