When Sri Aurobindo describes the merging of the individual consciousness into the cosmic consciousness, he is referring to a shift from the human to the divine standpoint. The divine standpoint is Sachchidananda, Existence-Consciousness-Bliss having the following characteristics:
“It is one eternal Existence that we then are, one eternal Consciousness which sees its own works in us and others, one eternal Will or Force of that Consciousness which displays itself in infinite workings, one eternal Delight which has the joy of itself and all its workings,–itself stable, immutable, timeless, spaceless, supreme and itself still in the infinity of its workings, not changed by their variations, not broken up by their multiplicity, not increased or diminished by their ebbings and flowings in the seas of Time and Space, not confused by their apparent contrarieties or limited by their divinely-willed limitations. Sachchidananda is the unity of the many-sidedness of manifested things, the eternal harmony of all their variations and oppositions, the infinite perfection which justifies their limitations and is the goal of their imperfections.”
When we reflect on these characteristics of consciousness, we can easily distinguish the difference between the human and the divine standpoint. The divine standpoint is one that “sees everywhere Oneness” as the Upanishad states, and at the same time, it can view, accept and integrate the individuality of forms, forces and movements, so that the experience of harmony and oneness is not disturbed by the existence and action of these (apparently) limited forms.
The methods we use to measure and distinguish forms and actions in the human experience, such as the very concepts of Time and Space, are reduced in relevance to the extent that we experience the unification of all Time and Space in one unbroken Reality, where the sequential movement of Time is seen as a convenience for experiencing reality from the human standpoint. Similarly the extension of the manifestation in Space is seen as a means for the human standpoint to experience from the basis of its limited ability to grasp the entirety of existence. Absent the actual experience, it is virtually impossible for the human intellect to have any clear sense or grasp as to what the divine standpoint, Sachchidananda, is and the inherent Oneness of its view.
Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Two: The Yoga of Integral Knowledge, Chapter 15, The Cosmic Consciousness, pg. 395