Introduction to Sri Aurobindo’s The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development


Philosophers and historians have attempted to develop an understanding of the stages or cycles through which human civilisation passes through time.  These cyclical patterns have primarily focused on how government forms evolve based on circumstances that arise in the preceding stage.

Sri Aurobindo develops the overview of mankind’s evolution to show that societies go through a series of stages, starting from the “symbolic”, moving to the “typal and conventional”, evolving to the “individualist” and finally ending in the “subjective”.  Each of these stages has characteristic elements as to how mankind aspires and builds its social structures and relationships, and how individuals view their own purpose and activity in life.  It is based upon this understanding that Sri Aurobindo reviews the history of humanity and its various societies and then provides us a platform for the coming new age of humanity, an age based on the principle of spirituality as the fulfillment of the subjective stage of human development.

The coming of a spiritual age of humanity is the fulfillment of the seeking of all religious and philosophical leaders of the ages.  The spiritual age of humanity differs from earlier ages in that it is based on a subjective foundation that retains the freedom and diversity of true inner growth rather than tying down this impulse within a fixed series of formulae or conventional definitions to which all people must conform.

Within this framework, the role of the individual will be reconciled with the needs of society, such that both can find their utmost fulfillment without the suppression of  the values embodied by the other.  Sri Aurobindo puts before us a goal that is at once sublime and uplifting:

“The ascent of man into heaven is not the key, but rather his ascent into the spirit and the descent of the Spirit into his normal humanity and transformation of this earthly nature.  For that and not some post mortem salvation is the real new birth for which humanity waits as the crowning movement of its long obscure and painful course.” (The Human Cycle, pg. 250)

Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development


Sri Aurobindo’s and Related Writings on Apple iTunes for IPhone and IPad:


Sri Aurobindo’s and Related Writings on Apple iTunes for IPhone and IPad:

We continue to add more titles to this list on an ongoing basis, so please check back regularly for additional titles.  We also supply a large number of titles for Amazon Kindle and Google Play which are listed separately.  Below find the links to the e-book versions available at this time on Apple iTunes:

By Sri Aurobindo:

Bases of Yoga                                      Bases of Yoga

 Essays on the Gita                              Essays on the Gita

 The Mother                                        The Mother

 Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol         Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol

 By The Mother:

 Commentaries on the Dhammapada  Commentaries on the Dhammapada

 By Sri M. P. Pandit:

 An Early Chapter in The Mother’s Life   Early Chapter in The Mother’s Life

 Art of Living                                        Art of Living

 Bases of Tantra Sadhana                   Bases of Tantra Sadhana

 Commentaries on Sri Aurobindo’s Thought, V. 1  Commentaries Sri Aurobindo’s Thought, V. 1

 Dhyana                                               Dhyana

 Heart of Sadhana                               Heart of Sadhana

 How Do I Proceed?                             How Do I Proceed?

 Introducing The Life Divine               Introducing The Life Divine

 Introducing Savitri                             Introducing Savitri

 Japa                                                    Japa

Kundalini Yoga                                   Kundalini Yoga

Readings in Savitri, V. 1                     Readings in Savitri, V. 1

 Readings in Savitri, V. 2                     Readings in Savitri, V. 2

 Readings in Savitri, V. 3                     Readings in Savitri, V. 3

 Readings in Savitri, V. 4                     Readings in Savitri, V. 4

 Readings in Savitri, V. 5                     Readings in Savitri, V. 5

 Readings in Savitri, V. 7                     Readings in Savitri, V. 7

 Readings in Savitri, V. 8                     Readings in Savitri, V. 8

Readings in Savitri, V. 9                     Readings in Savitri, V. 9

 Sri Aurobindo and His Yoga               Sri Aurobindo and His Yoga

 A Summary of Savitri                         A Summary of Savitri

 Talks on The Life Divine, V. 1             Talks on The Life Divine, V. 1

 Teachings of Sri Aurobindo               Teachings of Sri Aurobindo

Thoughts on the Gita                         Thoughts on the Gita

 By Santosh Krinsky:

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Life Divine, Vol. 1  Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Life Divine,V. 1

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Life Divine, Vol. 2 Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Life Divine, V. 2

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Life Divine, Vol. 3 Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Life Divine, V. 3

Readings in The Mother by Sri Aurobindo:               Readings in The Mother by Sri Aurobindo

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Rebirth and Karma:   Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Rebirth &  Karma

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita,V.1 Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita, V.1

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita, V. 2 Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita, V.2

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga, V. 1  Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Synthesis of Yoga, V. 1

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga, V. 2  Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Synthesis of Yoga, V. 2

Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga, V. 3  Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Synthesis of Yoga, V. 3

 By Rand Hicks:

A Savitri Dictionary                            A Savitri Dictionary

Rev. 6/11/17

Sri Aurobindo’s Writings Available as E-Books for Amazon Kindle Readers or App


The Amazon Kindle is perhaps the most popular e-book reader in the world, and the APP works on desktop computers, laptops, android phones, tablets etc. The APP can be downloaded free from We are systematically making Sri Aurobindo’s writings available for the Kindle App and Readers. Here are a few of them, with more links to be provided soon:

Bhagavad Gita and Its Message Bhagavad Gita and Its Message
Dictionary of Sri Aurobindo’s Yoga (compiled by M P Pandit) Dictionary of Sri Aurobindo’s Yoga
Essays on the Gita Essays on the Gita
The Future Evolution of Man The Future Evolution of Man
Hidden Forces of Life (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Hidden Forces of Life
The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development
The Ideal of Human Unity The Ideal of Human Unity
Integral Yoga: Sri Aurobindo’s Teaching and Method of Practice Integral Yoga
The Life Divine The Life Divine
Looking from Within (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Looking from Within
The Mind of Light The Mind of Light (The Supramental Manifestation on Earth)
The Mother The Mother
Our Many Selves (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Our Many Selves
Powers Within (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Powers Within
The Psychic Being (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Psychic Being
Rebirth and Karma Rebirth and Karma
Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol
Secret of the Veda Secret of the Veda
Sri Aurobindo on the Tantra (compiled by M P Pandit) Sri Aurobindo on the Tantra
The Synthesis of Yoga The Synthesis of Yoga
The Upanishads The Upanishads
Vedic Symbolism (compiled by M P Pandit) Vedic Symbolism
Yoga of Sleep and Dreams (compiled by AS Dalal from writings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother Yoga of Sleep and Dreams

By Sri M P Pandit:
Sri Aurobindo and His Yoga Sri Aurobindo and His Yoga
Teaching of Sri Aurobindo Teaching of Sri Aurobindo



Bases of Yoga BASES OF YOGA
Essays on the Gita ESSAYS ON THE GITA
The Human Cycle: Psychology of Social Development The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development
Ideal of Human Unity IDEAL OF HUMAN UNITY
The Mind of Light THE MIND OF LIGHT
Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol  Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol
Sri Aurobindo on the Tantra SRI AUROBINDO ON THE TANTRA
The Synthesis of Yoga THE SYNTHESIS OF YOGA

For Android Phones, Tablets, and E-Readers

Sri Aurobindo Studies


Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga has enormous implications for the time we find ourselves in.  As we systematically destroy the basis of life on the planet, and wall off one another through ultimate fragmentation, we are left with the stark contrast of choosing between survival and destruction, life and death, growth or decline.  Sri Aurobindo recognizes the necessity of the individual within the context of the collectivity, universality and the transcendent consciousness of Oneness.  The individual is the nexus or hub of the evolutionary urge, but not separate from nor at the expense of the life of the cosmic whole.

We also have a daily twitter feed on Sri Aurobindo’s studies at

We have systematically worked our way through The Life Divine as well as The Mother , Essays on the Gita and Rebirth and Karma.  The newest posts appear near the top.  If you want to start at the beginning, go to the oldest post and roll forward until you reach the final posts in July 2012.

Another option is to “search” for the chapter you would like to study and see all posts relating to that chapter. You may have to ask for “older posts” once you have the search results if you are looking for one of the earlier chapters.

We have separated the posts relating to each book into their own folder as an additional organisational tool.

Similarly you can use the search box to find specific concepts, terms or issues you are interested in. The results will show all posts that address those concepts or terms. You may have to click on “older posts” to find all the references here as well.

The next book we are taking up is The Synthesis of Yoga by Sri Aurobindo, following a similar format to that we have utilised for The Life Divine , The Mother, Essays on the Gita and Rebirth and Karma.

You may also want to visit our information site for Sri Aurobindo at Sri-Aurobindo.Com

Sri Aurobindo’s major writings are published in the US by Lotus Press.

The systematic studies on this blog have also been published as self-standing books by Lotus Press and are available in both printed formats and as e-books. There are 3 volumes encompassing Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Life Divine, 2 volumes encompassing Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita, as well as 1 volume for Readings in The Mother by Sri Aurobindo, and Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Rebirth and Karma., and 1 volume currently for the first section of The Synthesis of Yoga titled Readings In Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga, Vol. 1 Introduction and Yoga of Divine Works

Many of the major writings of Sri Aurobindo are now also accessible on the Amazon Kindle Platform as well as Apple itunes, google play, kobo, and Barnes & Noble nook as well.  Kindle e-book reader program is also available for PC, Laptop, iPad, Blackberry, Android, iPhone and many other platforms from Amazon without charge. You can find the current list of titles available by going to , go to the “kindle store” and type in “Aurobindo” New titles are being added as they can be made ready. Many of the major books are already accessible by the Kindle Reader.  You can follow a similar procedure for the other platforms we now support for Sri Aurobindo’s writings, I-tunes, Barnes & Noble, Google Play, and KOBO.

The Bias of the Modern Scientific Mind in Explaining Human Society in Terms of Material Events

Western science divides between what are considered to be the “hard” sciences, those that encompass physical facts, matter, chemistry, physics and biology, i.e. those things which can be measured, dissected, analyzed and probed directly, and the “soft” sciences, which deal with human behavior, psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, for example.  The extraordinary results obtained in the hard sciences through their methodologies have convinced many that similar methods and systems can be applied equally when viewing human behavior, whether as individual human beings or in groups, or through time in response to various factors, whether natural or human caused.  Entire disciplines within psychology, for example, try to explain the human mind and traits such as insight, rational thought, or compassion by virtue of specific chemical activities within the brain, and the practitioners of these disciplines go to extreme lengths to try to explain away everything, including religious or spiritual experience, in terms that can be boiled down to brain chemistry, hormone cycles, and external impulses from the physical world.  Of course, this world view finds it impossible to see an evolutionary patterns, any higher impulsions that may be causing the phenomena they are viewing and measuring.  Sri Aurobindo takes exception to this world view and presents a different understanding that does not treat physical explanations as the primary causative factors, but rather, as the result of influences, powers and drives that create the material forms for purposes not measurable by physical science.  The question arises, how a scientist understand the complexity of the universal creation and its changing forms and actions if he does not accept nor try to determine ultimate non-physical causative factors?

Sri Aurobindo observes:  “Modern Science, obsessed with the greatness of its physical discoveries and the idea of the sole existence of Matter, has long attempted to base upon physical data even its study of Soul and Mind and of those workings of Nature in man and animal in which a knowledge of psychology is as important as any of the physical sciences.  Its very psychology founded itself upon physiology and the scrutiny of the brain and nervous system.  It is not surprising therefore that in history and sociology attention should have been concentrated on the external data, laws, institutions, rites, customs, economic factors and developments, while the deeper psychological elements so important in the activities of a mental, emotional, ideative being like man have been very much neglected.  This kind of science would explain history and social development as much as possible by economic necessity or motive, — by economy understood in its widest sense.  There are even historians who deny or put aside as of a very subsidiary importance the working of the idea and the influence of the thinker in the development of human institutions.  The French Revolution, it is thought, would have happened just as it did and when it did, by economic necessity, even if Rousseau and Voltaire had never written and the eighteenth-century philosophic movement in the world of thought had never worked out its hold and radical speculations.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development, Chapter 1, The Cycle of Society, pg. 5

Conclusions About the Ideal of Human Unity

Evolutionary change cannot be measured in one or two generations.  Developing ideas and forces may be stirring under the surface, preparing to burst forth and, in the interim, remain relatively unseen.  In the interim, life goes on as it has always gone on, with the vital and animal propensities governing much of what passes for civilisation in this world.  Those who want to dominate through use of brute force forsake any concern for the well-being of those who are not part of their own clique, and disregard any concern for future generations of humanity or even of the health of the planet upon which we all reside and upon which we all depend.

However, if we observe closely, we can see and identify a slow, but steady growth of a new consciousness, a consciousness that transcends the egoistic bonds of self, family, tribe, community, city, state, nation, empire, religion, race, cultural background, or language.  This new consciousness sees a future for humanity that respects each individual, each social or religious background, each tradition, and which understands the need for diversity and difference for the very health of humanity in the long run.  This new consciousness works to bring about mutual benefit rather than egoistic fulfillment at the expense of others, and takes care of the needs of planetary health as a basis for long-term human survival.

The First Nations people of North America have a tradition that calls for people to view actions for their impact in the future down to seven generations.  This type of forward thinking is essential if we are to avoid focusing solely on short-term gain at the expense of the harmony and balance for all in the future.

Today’s world is fixated on short-term material gain and seems careless of waste, imbalance or suffering; yet we see an ever-increasing number of people embracing the ideals set forth by Sri Aurobindo in The Ideal of Human Unity.  People from all corners of the globe are raising issues and speaking “truth to power” about the need for goodwill, harmony, balance, and shared access to the resources of the planet.   These people are challenging embedded racism, religious fanaticism, colonialism, imperialism, and economic imbalances and inequities, and in so doing, they act as the forerunners of a more harmonious, and civilised, future.

The entrenched forces of the past, recognising this challenge to their domination, try their utmost to destroy or still this new consciousness, but the change continues to push forward and grow.  We may see small signs such as the development of a youth orchestra consisting of Palestinian and Israeli teenagers, learning to appreciate one another and work together, or the development of an environmental movement which recognises that the health of the environment is essential for the survival of all humanity.  We can also see larger movements such as the development of the United Nations, the World Health Organisation, and international groups such as Doctors Without Borders, which signal that humanity is now attempting to put the ideas contained within this new consciousness into action, however imperfectly, in whatever small or large way is possible.

When we look around us today, we see the kind of aggressive and harmful egoism at all levels that could bring us to a state of despair if we could not at the same time recognise that much of what we see today in the world is a reaction of the forces that dominated humanity’s past to the pressure of change that is building throughout the world.  And thus, we can see hope where we would otherwise be forced to despair.

The future existence of the human race lies in embracing our highest and best potential, applying intelligence, compassion and goodwill to all our interactions with other beings that share this planet with us, and in our relationship to the environment.  Sri Aurobindo has provided us a roadmap for this future.  It is for us to choose to follow that roadmap and embrace the new consciousness that is bringing the hope of positive change into the world.

Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity

The True Solution for Humanity and Its Future Development

Humanity has attempted many solutions to bring about “human unity”, including empire-building, exploitation of those weaker or less technologically developed, genocide, slavery, religious fanaticism, “divide and conquer” strategies, warfare and economic imperialism.  None of these “solutions” have worked.  In today’s world, we see a growing power of authoritarianism and domination by a small economic elite in the world, with a carelessness about the future, or the consequences for humanity that is breathtaking.

Sri Aurobindo observes:  “We seem at the present moment to be very far away from such a rational solution (i.e. Sri Aurobindo’s proposal for true human unity as outlined in this book) and indeed at the opposite pole of human possibility; we have swung back to an extreme of international disorder and to an entire application of the vital and animal principle of the struggle for survival, not of the humanly fittest, but of the strongest.”

“But the very intensity of this struggle and disorder may be the path Nature has chosen towards the true escape from it; for it is becoming more and more evident that a long continuance of the present international state of humanity will lead not to any survival, but to the destruction of civilisation and the relapse of the race towards barbarism, decadence, an evolutionary failure.  The antipathy or hostility or distrust of nations, races, cultures, religions towards each other is due to the past habit of egoistic self-assertion, desire for domination, for encroachment upon the lebensraum one of another and the consequent sense of the oppression of the individuality of one by the other.  A state of things must be brought about in which mutual toleration is the law, an order in which many elements, racial, national, cultural, spiritual can exist side by side and form a multiple unity; in such an order all these antipathies, hostilities, distrusts would die from lack of nourishment.  That would be a true state of perfectly developed human civilisation, a true basis for the higher progress of the race.  In this new order India with her spiritual culture turned towards the highest aims of humanity would find her rightful place and would become one of the leaders of the human evolution by the greatness of her ideals and the capacity of her peoples for the spiritualisation of life.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity, Part Two, Appendix, pg. 329

The Inevitable Fulfilment of the Ideal of Human Unity

Sri Aurobindo provides a closing statement outlining the inevitability of the fulfillment of human unity, and providing an overview of the primary issues and directions that this may take:

“We conclude then that in the conditions of the world at present, even taking into consideration its most disparaging features and dangerous possibilities, there is nothing that need alter the view we have taken of the necessity and inevitability of some kind of world-union; the drive of Nature, the compulsion of circumstances and the present and future need of mankind make it inevitable.”

“The ultimate result must be the formation of a World-State and the most desirable form of it would be a federation of free nationalities in which all subjection or forced inequality and subordination of one to another would have disappeared and, though some might preserve a greater natural influence, all would have an equal status.  A confederacy would give the greatest freedom to the nations constituting the World-State, but this might give too much room for fissiparous or centrifugal tendencies to operate; a federal order would then be the most desirable.  All else would be determined by the course of events and by general agreement or the shape given by the ideas and necessities that may grow up in the future.  A world-union of this kind would have the greatest chances of long survival or permanent existence.  This is a mutable world and  uncertainties and dangers might assail or trouble for a time; the formed structure might be subjected to revolutionary tendencies as new ideas and forces emerged and produced their effect on the general mind of humanity, but the essential step would have been taken and the future of the race assured or at least the present era overpassed in which it is threatened and disturbed by unsolved needs and difficulties, precarious conditions, immense upheavals, huge and sanguinary world-wide conflicts and the threat of others to come.  The ideal of human unity would be no longer an unfulfilled ideal but an accomplished fact and its preservation given into the charge of the united human peoples.  Its future destiny would lie on the knees of the gods and, if the gods have a use for the continued existence of the race, may be left to lie there safe.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity, Part Two, A Postscript Chapter, pp. 324-325

The Evolutionary Urge Towards Human Unity Points to the Likely Outcome

It is quite self-evident that neither the League of Nations, nor the later development of the United Nations represents an unqualified success in the search for a stable world organisation to bring together all the diverse peoples and solve problems together rather than fight wars.  It is true that there has not been another major outbreak of world war since the end of World War II, a period now spanning 73 years, and this is a major accomplishment, but while some credit might be given to the United Nations, in fact, the primary driver of this fact is more likely the “Mutually Assured Destruction” capacity held by the United States and Russia and the fears surrounding any destabilising move.  This however has not prevented the outbreak of regional proxy wars.  We cannot however dismiss the United Nations entirely.  The multiple agencies in particular have done tremendous work to provide a forum for working out solution to world-issues or crises and this provides something of a template for future increased collaboration.  The veto power held by 5 permanent members of the Security Council has been misused, and certainly must eventually be removed or replaced with another mechanism that avoids the kind of misuse we have seen over the years.

Sri Aurobindo notes:  “There is nothing then in the development of events since the establishment of the United Nations Organisation … that need discourage us in the expectation of an ultimate success of this great enterprise.  There are dangers and difficulties, there can be an apprehension of conflicts, even of colossal conflicts that might jeopardize the future, but total failure need not be envisaged unless we are disposed to predict the failure of the race.  The thesis we have undertaken to establish of the drive of Nature towards larger agglomerations and the final establishment of the largest of all and the ultimate union of the world’s peoples still remains unaltered: this is evidently the line which the future of the human race demands and which conflicts and perturbations, however immense, may delay, even as they may modify greatly the forms it now promises to take, but are not likely to prevent; for a general destruction would be the only alternative destiny of mankind.  But such a destruction, whatever the catastrophic possibilities balancing the almost certain beneficial results, hardly limitable in their extent, of the recent discoveries and inventions of Science, has every chance of being as chimerical as any early expectations of final peace and felicity or a perfected society of the human peoples.  We may rely, if on nothing else, on the evolutionary urge and, if on no other greater hidden Power, on the manifold working and drift or intention in the World-Energy we call Nature to carry mankind at least as far as the necessary next step to be taken, a self-preserving next step: for the necessity is there, at l”east some general recognition of it has been achieved and of the thing to which it must eventually lead the idea has been born and the body of it is already calling for its creation.

Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity, Part Two, A Postscript Chapter, pp. 323-324

The Weakness of Socialism as an Organizing Principle of a World-

The rise of socialism as a governing model was one of the major defining events of the 20th century.  Various forms arose, from the strict State Socialism of the Communist attempts, to the Fascist form of State-control of the National Socialist movement in Germany, to the more balanced approach we have seen rise in Western European countries which brings together the concept of socialism with the respect for individual freedom.  At one point, the power of the idea of people sharing a “commons” for the benefit of all was strong and gaining traction; yet the strongly individualistic, egoistic and capitalistic creed, primarily based in the United States, was highly opposed to even the most moderate forms of socialism.  It may be argued that in the interim, the USA has in fact taken up certain key concepts of socialism, with the development of social security, medicare and children’s health care programs, food stamps, etc. but these programs continue to be treated with disdain by a large number of citizens and leaders of the USA, and the primary objection is the fact that they embody something of a socialist ideal within their forms.

Sri Aurobindo discusses the weaknesses of socialism for purposes of development of a World-State:  “Socialism has under certain stresses proved to be by no means immune against infection by the dividing national spirit and its international tendency might not survive its coming into power in separate national States and a resulting inheritance of competing national interests and necessities; the old spirit might very well survive in the new socialist bodies.  But also there might not be or not for a long time to come an inevitable tide of the spread of Socialism to all the peoples of the earth; other forces might arise which would dispute what seemed at one time and perhaps still seems the most likely outcome of existing world tendencies; the conflict between Communism and the less extreme socialistic idea which still respects the principle of liberty, even though a restricted liberty, and the freedom of conscience, of thought, of personality of the individual, if this difference perpetuated itself, might create a serious difficulty in the formation of a World-State.  It would not be easy to build a constitution, a harmonised State-law and practice in which any modicum of genuine freedom for the individual or any continued existence of him except as a cell in the working of a rigidly determined automatism of the body of the collectivist State or a part of a machine would be possible or conceivable.”

“…Socialism itself might well develop away from the Marxist groove and evolve less rigid modes; a cooperative Socialism, for instance, without any bureaucratic rigour of a coercive administration, of a Police State, might one day come into existence, but the generalisation of Socialism throughout the world is not under existing circumstances easily foreseeable, hardly even a predominant possibility; in spite of certain possibilities or tendencies created by recent events in the Far East, a division of the earth between the two systems, capitalistic and socialistic, seems for the present a more likely issue.  In America the attachment to individualism and the capitalistic system of society and a strong antagonism not only to Communism but to even a moderate Socialism remains complete and one can foresee little possibility of any abatement in its intensity.”

“A successful accommodation would demand the creation of a body in which all questions of possible dispute could be solved as they arose without any breaking out of open conflict.”

“…a creation of an effective world-union would still be possible; in the end the mass of general needs of the race and its need of self-preservation could well be relied on to make it inevitable.”


Sri Aurobindo, The Ideal of Human Unity, Part Two, A Postscript Chapter, pp. 321-323