SRI AUROBINDO’S BOOKS NOW AVAILABLE ON GOOGLE PLAY AS E-BOOKS:

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The Mother THE MOTHER
Bases of Yoga BASES OF YOGA
Essays on the Gita ESSAYS ON THE GITA
The Human Cycle: Psychology of Social Development The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development
Ideal of Human Unity IDEAL OF HUMAN UNITY
The Life Divine THE LIFE DIVINE
The Mind of Light THE MIND OF LIGHT
Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol  Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol
Sri Aurobindo on the Tantra SRI AUROBINDO ON THE TANTRA
The Synthesis of Yoga THE SYNTHESIS OF YOGA

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Introduction to Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga

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In The Synthesis of Yoga Sri Aurobindo unfolds his vision of an integral (also called “purna” or “complete”) yoga embracing all the powers and activities of man. He provides an overview of the main paths of yoga, their primary methodologies and the necessity for integrating them into a complete, all-embracing and all-encompassing activity. The motto “All Life Is Yoga” is the theme of this text.

Sri Aurobindo points out that this is not intended as a fixed methodology: “The Synthesis of Yoga was not meant to give a method for all to follow. Each side of the Yoga was dealt with separately with all its possibilities, and an indication as to how they meet so that one starting from knowledge could realise Karma and Bhakti also and so with each path.” (pg. 899)

The final section begins to flesh out an integrative method which Sri Aurobindo called the “yoga of self-perfection”. While all the details of this approach were not completed to the extent desired, Sri Aurobindo has provided ample guidelines for the seeker to understand the direction and the path.

It is our goal to take up the systematic review of The Synthesis of Yoga in the following pages. All page number citations in this review are based on the U.S. edition of The Synthesis of Yoga published by Lotus Press, EAN: 978-0-9415-2465-0 Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga

Chapter headings and organization of the material follow The Synthesis of Yoga.

Sri Aurobindo Studies

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Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga has enormous implications for the time we find ourselves in.  As we systematically destroy the basis of life on the planet, and wall off one another through ultimate fragmentation, we are left with the stark contrast of choosing between survival and destruction, life and death, growth or decline.  Sri Aurobindo recognizes the necessity of the individual within the context of the collectivity, universality and the transcendent consciousness of Oneness.  The individual is the nexus or hub of the evolutionary urge, but not separate from nor at the expense of the life of the cosmic whole.

We also have a daily twitter feed on Sri Aurobindo’s studies at www.twitter.com/santoshk1

We have systematically worked our way through The Life Divine as well as The Mother , Essays on the Gita and Rebirth and Karma.  The newest posts appear near the top.  If you want to start at the beginning, go to the oldest post and roll forward until you reach the final posts in July 2012.

Another option is to “search” for the chapter you would like to study and see all posts relating to that chapter. You may have to ask for “older posts” once you have the search results if you are looking for one of the earlier chapters.

We have separated the posts relating to each book into their own folder as an additional organisational tool.

Similarly you can use the search box to find specific concepts, terms or issues you are interested in. The results will show all posts that address those concepts or terms. You may have to click on “older posts” to find all the references here as well.

The next book we are taking up is The Synthesis of Yoga by Sri Aurobindo, following a similar format to that we have utilised for The Life Divine , The Mother, Essays on the Gita and Rebirth and Karma.

You may also want to visit our information site for Sri Aurobindo at Sri-Aurobindo.Com

Sri Aurobindo’s major writings are published in the US by Lotus Press.

The systematic studies on this blog have also been published as self-standing books by Lotus Press and are available in both printed formats and as e-books. There are 3 volumes encompassing Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s The Life Divine, 2 volumes encompassing Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita, as well as 1 volume for Readings in The Mother by Sri Aurobindo, and Readings in Sri Aurobindo’s Rebirth and Karma., and 1 volume currently for the first section of The Synthesis of Yoga titled Readings In Sri Aurobindo’s The Synthesis of Yoga, Vol. 1 Introduction and Yoga of Divine Works

Many of the major writings of Sri Aurobindo are now also accessible on the Amazon Kindle Platform as well as Apple itunes, google play, kobo, and Barnes & Noble nook as well.  Kindle e-book reader program is also available for PC, Laptop, iPad, Blackberry, Android, iPhone and many other platforms from Amazon without charge. You can find the current list of titles available by going to http://www.amazon.com , go to the “kindle store” and type in “Aurobindo” New titles are being added as they can be made ready. Many of the major books are already accessible by the Kindle Reader.  You can follow a similar procedure for the other platforms we now support for Sri Aurobindo’s writings, I-tunes, Barnes & Noble, Google Play, and KOBO.

A Divine Self-Expression Through the Divinised Human Nature

The supermind has various poises, depending on which level of the manifestation it is acting upon at the moment. It can take its native poise at the highest levels of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, and it can take a poise of action through the individual soul in manifestation. In each case, the expression is modified or tempered to bring about the intended result for the role that is being played at the time. There are therefore, as Sri Aurobindo explains, various gradations or levels of supramental awareness that can be conceived, and the human individual, undertaking the evolutionary ascent, will experience successive levels of widening and heightening awareness and power of action. There is a famous sloka which expresses the sense of going from darkness to light, then from light to greater light. The levels of the supramental consciousness represent the “light to greater light” portion of this insight.

“It must be remembered that there is always a difference between the supreme Supermind of the omniscient and omnipotent Ishwara and that which can be attained by the Jiva. The human being is climbing out of the ignorance and when he ascents into the supramental nature, he will find in it grades of its ascension, and he must first form the lower grades and limited steps before he rises to higher summits. He will enjoy there the full essential light, power, Ananda of the infinite self by oneness with the Spirit, but in the dynamical expression it must determine and individualise itself according to the nature of the self-expression which the transcendent and universal Spirit seeks in the Jiva. It is God-realisation and God-expression which is the object of our Yoga and more especially of its dynamic side; it is a divine self-expression in us of the Ishwara, but under the conditions of humanity and through the divinised human nature.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pg. 768

The Intuitive Mind As a Transitional Step Towards the Supramental Transformation of Consciousness

If we examine closely the working of the mental functions, we can identify the reception of impulses by the senses and communication of these impulses to the brain. From that point forward, the mind undertakes a process to identify, organize, understand and act upon these impulses. Essentially this is a process of making order out of the chaos of random sense impressions that come in. Most sense impressions wind up being disregarded, as the mind chooses and attends to certain details and organizes them into patterns of understanding. These patterns are then committed to memory and become the basis for the mind’s ability to “fill in” missing information when it observes things in the future which “fit” the pattern in general.

What is not clarified in this process is how the mind actually gets the organizing principle and the understanding about the implication of the sense perceptions and thereby gains knowledge and the ability to interpret and act. There must be some informing intelligence that activates the mind for these functions. Sri Aurobindo identifies the action of supermind in the mental processes as what he would calls intuition.

“The supermind in the lower nature is present most strongly as intuition and it is therefore by a development of an intuitive mind that we can make the first step towards the self-existent spontaneous and direct supramental knowledge. All the physical, vital, emotional, psychic, dynamic nature of man is a surface seizing of suggestions which rise out of a subliminal intuitive self-being of these parts, and an attempt usually groping and often circuitous to work them out in the action of a superficial embodiment and power of the nature which is not overtly enlightened by the inner power and knowledge. An increasingly intuitive mind has the best chance of discovering what they are seeking for and leading them to the desired perfection of their self-expression. The reason itself is only a special kind of application, made by a surface regulating intelligence, of suggestions which actually come from a concealed, but sometimes partially overt and active power of the intuitive spirit. In all its action there is at the covered or half-covered point of origination something which is not the creation of the reason, but given to it either directly by the intuition or indirectly through some other part of the mind for it to shape into intellectual form and process.”

The action of intuition in the mind is not complete nor perfect. The mental process tends to veil or coat the intuitive flash with the steps of reason and the promptings of the desire-soul, so that what actually comes forth is a mixed and inadequate result, albeit still containing the seed of the inspiration that brought the formation into existence in the first place. For a more powerful action, the intuitive mind would have to take charge of the process of knowledge in the individual rather than hand off its light to the lesser functioning of rational mentality. “This can indeed only be done if we make the intuitive mind a transitional means for bringing out the secret supermind itself of which it is a mental figure and forming in our frontal consciousness a body and instrument of supermind which will make it possible for the self and spirit to display itself in its own largeness and splendour.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 767-768

Human Development: Instinct, Reason and the Supermind

Instinctive behavior takes place, as it does in the plant and animal development, in the human being as well. There are numerous built-in patterns of reaction that help to define how the human individual will respond to various circumstances or situations. At the same time, we see in the human being the development of the power of the mind, and with the advent of self-reflective operations of intelligence and reason we see the conscious effort to modify or suppress the action of instinct and supplant it with a decision made through the mental process. This action of the reasoning intelligence disrupts the pure reaction of instinct. There are both positive and negative aspects of this disruption. The human being acts as a transitional being with the capacity and drive toward a greater fulfillment and a greater action of self-awareness and self-exceeding towards a higher range of consciousness. To the extent that instinct hinders or gets in the way of this process, it must be addressed. At the same time, the mind tends to try to dominate the physical and vital segments of the human composition, and due to its limitations, it may suppress or try to eliminate powers that are necessary for the completeness of the expression, rather than adjust and reorient them.

Sri Aurobindo observes: “The being of man also is full of physical, vital, emotional, psychical and dynamic instincts and intuitions, but he does not rely on them as the animal does,–though they are capable in him of a far larger scope and greater action than in the animal and lower creation by reason of his greater actual evolutionary development and his yet greater potentiality of development of the being. he has suppressed them, discontinued their full and overt action by atrophy,–not that these capacities are destroyed but rather held back or cast back into the subliminal consciousness,–and consequently this lower part of his being is much less sure of itself, much less confident of the directions of his nature, much more groping, errant and fallible in its larger scope than that of the animal in his lesser limits. This happens because man’s real Dharma and law of being is to seek for a greater self-aware existence, a self-manifestation no longer obscure and governed by an ununderstood necessity, but illumined, conscious of that which is expressing itself and able to give it a fuller and more perfect expression. And finally his culmination must be to identify himself with his greatest and real self and act or rather let it act (his natural existence being an instrumental form of the expression of the spirit) in its spontaneous perfect will and knowledge.”

To do this, the use of the reasoning intelligence is the first and foremost tool to begin with. But due to the limitations of the reasoning intelligence and the circumscribed capacities it has, this is not sufficient nor the ultimate tool for development beyond the human limitations. “The godhead of the reason, the intellectual Logos, is only a partial representative and substitute for the greater supramental Logos, and its function is to impose a preliminary partial knowledge and order upon the life of the creature, but the rael, final and integral order can only be founded by the spiritual supermind in its emergence.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 766-767

The Secret Force of Knowledge and Will Operating in Material and Vital Nature

The action of the supramental knowledge and force is embedded in the structure and functioning of Matter, not as a self-aware consciousness, but as an intricately detailed operation of what we call “material energy”. The atomic structure of Matter evidences the operation of a powerful and coordinated intelligence at work in the systematic and mechanical operations. The supermind does not bring its entire power of self-awareness to the material or vital planes but transforms its effective action into what may be seen as a secret intelligence. In the case of the vital plane, we observe the functioning of what we call “instinct”. The plant or animal “knows” what to do without self-reflection or consideration, because this knowledge is built into the very nature of their being. Sri Aurobindo describes this as a type of “intuition” in Matter and Life.

“There is what we are sometimes moved to call an intelligence and will operating in the material force and the atom…-let us say, a covert intuition of self-existence at work,–but the atom and force are not aware of it and are only the obscure body of matter and of power crated by its first effort of self-manifestation. The presence of such an intuition becomes more evident to us in all the action of life because that is nearer to our own scale. And as life develops overt sense and mind, as in the animal creation, we can speak more confidently of a vital intuition which is behind its operations and which emerges in the animal mind in the clear form of instinct,–instinct, an automatic knowledge implanted in the animal, sure, direct, self-existent, self-guided, which implies somewhere in its being an accurate knowing of purpose, relation and the thing or object. It acts in the life force and mind, but yet the surface life and mind do not possess it and cannot give an account of what it does or control or extend the power at its will and pleasure. Here we observe two things, first, that the overt intuition acts only for a limited necessity and purpose, and that in the rest of the operations of the nature there is a double action, one uncertain and ignorant of the surface consciousness and the other subliminal, implying a secret subconscient direction. The surface consciousness is full of a groping and seeking which increases rather than diminishes as life rises in its scale and widens in the scope of its conscious powers; but the secret self within assures in spite of the groping of the vital mind, the action of the nature and the result needed for the necessity, the purpose and the destiny of the being. This continues on a higher and higher scale up to the human reason and intelligence.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 765-766

Supramental Action Is the Hidden Secret of Nature

Whether we look into the macrocosm or the microcosm, we find that the mystery of the universal creation exceeds any capacity of the mental consciousness to understand or comprehend it in its breadth or depth. With the advent of new tools of investigation such as the electron microscope, we can observe the organization of the building blocks of Matter, the atomic structure of all forms. We can also look deep into space and observe enormous numbers of galaxies, stars, planets through an immensity of space that is beyond our comprehension, and nevertheless with a system and process that shows the non-random nature of the universe. Looking even at the forms of life around us and the eco-sphere and bio-sphere of life on this planet, we see an incredible diversity of forms which somehow seem to fit together, to support and require one another for existence and which, despite their diversity, apparently make up one coordinated whole. Thus we see that human beings need to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide; and plants create oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide. Thus, human beings are symbiotic beings with the world of plants. While the atomic structure of Matter appears to be inconscient and automatic, it exhibits such a high degree of intelligent organization that it clearly is the product of consciousness.

This is how we can identify the supramental action even in the inconscience of Matter. Sri Aurobindo elaborates: “There is even a quite visible intimate action of the consciousness, persistent in life, matter and mind, which is clearly a supramental action subdued to the character and need of the lower medium and to which we now give the name of intuition from its most evident characteristics of direct vision and self-acting knowledge, really a vision born of some secret identity with the object of the knowledge. What we call the intuition is however only a partial indication of the presence of the supermind, and if we take this presence and power in its widest character, we shall see that it is a concealed supramental force with a self-conscient knowledge in it which informs the whole action of material energy. It is that which determines what we call law of nature, maintains the action of each thing according to its own nature and harmonises and evolves the whole, which would otherwise be a fortuitous creation apt at any moment to collapse into chaos. All the law of nature is a thing precise in its necessities of process, but is yet in the cause of that necessity and of its constancy of rule, measure, combination, adaptation, result a thing inexplicable, meeting us at every step with a mystery and a miracle, and this must be either because it is irrational and accidental even in its regularities or because it is supra-rational, because the truth of it belongs to a principle greater than that of our intelligence. That principle is the supramental; that is to say, the hidden secret of Nature is the organisation of something out of the infinite potentialities of the self-existent truth of the spirit the nature of which is wholly evident only to an original knowledge born of and proceeding by a fundamental identity, the spirit’s constant self-perception.”

“All these processes are actually spiritual and supramental in their secret government, but mental, vital and physical in their overt process.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 764-765

The Levels of the Mental Consciousness

We may look upon consciousness as a continuum, starting from the all-conscious, Sat-Chit-Ananda which is the divine knowledge and will in its highest form of existence. In order to create a manifested universe with various planes of consciousness and existence, this ultimate status undergoes a process of “involution” whereby the broader knowledge and power are veiled and reduced in their immediate capacity and action, analogous to a “step-down transformer” taking raw electrical power generation and converting it into a form that can be transmitted through wires into homes to operate the electrical devices. The supramental consciousness is the lynch-pin that carries out this “step-down” transformation of consciousness. It remains fully aware and connected to the higher status of conscious awareness, while at the same time, it is able to develop differentiation of forms and functions consistent with the needs of the manifestation of the Divine through Time, Space and Circumstance. Once fully involved in the apparent inconscience of Matter, the consciousness works in an “automatic” fashion of incredible complexity and interactivity, but without obvious self-awareness. From this status of involution, it begins to evolve out and manifest the vital intelligence, the animal mind, the higher mind and then succeeding levels of intuitive mind and eventually rejoining the awareness of the supramental consciousness.

Sri Aurobindo describes the levels of mental consciousness that intervene between the supramental and the material planes: “The mind, when we trace the descent of the self towards matter, we see as a derivation which travels away from the fullness of self, the fullness of its light and being and which lives in a division and diversion, not in the body of the sun, but first in its nearer and then in its far-off rays. There is a highest intuitive mind which receives more nearly the supramental truth, but even this is a formation which conceals the direct and greater real knowledge. There is an intellectual mind which is a luminous half-opaque lid which intercepts and reflects in a radiantly distorting and suppressively modifying atmosphere the truth known to the supermind. There is a still lower mind built on the foundation of the senses between which and the sun of knowledge there is a thick cloud, an emotional and a sensational mist and vapour with here and there lightnings and illuminations. There is a vital mind which is shut away even from the light of intellectual truth, and lower still in submental life and matter the spirit involves itself entirely as if in a sleep and a night, a sleep plunged in a dim and yet poignant nervous dream, the night of a mechanical somnambulist energy. It is a re-evolution of the spirit out of this lowest state in which we find ourselves at a height above the lower creation, having taken it up all in us and reaching so far in our ascent only the light of the well-developed mental reason. The full powers of self-knowledge and the illumined will of the spirit are still beyond us above the mind and reason in supramental Nature.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 763-764

The Spontaneous Self-Fulfilling Truth of the Spirit

The limitations of the mentality are not just due to fragmentation of knowledge within the world of its perception of Circumstance. These limitations extend to an incapacity to grasp the enormity of Space as well as the sequence of Time. There is an ancient philosophical riddle propounded by a Greek thinker that indicated that an arrow could never reach its target, because at each moment, it would traverse half the distance to its goal, so it could not reach its goal. This is an illustration of the limitation of the mental consciousness because it assumed that each moment in time was a segmented and fragmented unit rather than a continuous flow from past to present and from present to future. The supramental knowledge, on the contrary, is able to view Time, Space and Circumstance as one whole, as a continuity and as a self-unfolding of the Will of the divine Spirit.

Sri Aurobindo observes: “The mind knows only the present and lives in an isolated movement of it though it tries to remember and retain the past and forecast and compel the future. The supermind has the vision of the three times, trikaladrsti; it sees them as an indivisible movement and sees too each containing the others. It is aware of all tendencies, energies and forces as the diverse play of unity and knows their relation to each other in the single movement of the one spirit. The supramental will and action are therefore a will and action of the spontaneous self-fulfilling truth of the spirit, the right and at the highest the infallible movement of a direct and total knowledge.”

“The supramental nature on the contrary is just, harmonious and one, will and knowledge there only light of the spirit and power of the spirit, the power effecting the light, the light illumining the power. In the highest supramentality they are intimately fused together and do not even wait upon each other but are one movement, will illumining itself, knowledge fulfilling itself, both together a single jet of the being.”

Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, Part Four: The Yoga of Self-Perfection, Chapter 19, The Nature of the Supermind, pp. 762-763